Gopher

Gophers are heavily built, and most are moderately large, ranging from 12 to 30 cm (4.7 to 12 in) in length, and weighing a few hundred grams. A few species reach weights approaching 1 kg (2.2 lb). Males are always larger than the females and can be nearly double their weight.[1] Most gophers have brown fur which often closely matches the color of the soil in which they live. Their most characteristic feature is their large cheek pouches, from which the word “pocket” in their name derives. These pouches are fur-lined, and can be turned inside out. They extend from the side of the mouth well back onto the shoulders. They have small eyes and a short, hairy tail which they use to feel around tunnels when they walk backwards.

[edit] Behavior

All pocket gophers are burrowers. They are larder hoarders, and their cheek pouches are used for transporting food back to their burrows. Gophers can collect large hoards. Their presence is unambiguously announced by the appearance of mounds of fresh dirt about 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter. These mounds will often appear in vegetable gardens, lawns, or farms, as gophers like moist soil. They also enjoy feeding on vegetables. For this reason, some species are considered agricultural pests. They may also damage trees in forests. Although they will attempt to flee when threatened, they may attack other animals, including cats and humans, and can inflict serious bites with their long, sharp teeth.

Pocket gophers are solitary outside of the breeding season, aggressively maintaining territories that vary in size depending on the resources available. Males and females may share some burrows and nesting chambers if their territories border each other, but in general, each pocket gopher inhabits its own individual tunnel system.

Depending on the species and local conditions, pocket gophers may have a specific annual breeding season, or may breed repeatedly through the year. Each litter typically consists of two to five young, although this may be much higher in some species. The young are born blind and helpless, and are weaned at around forty days[2].

[edit] Classification

There has been much debate among taxonomists about which races of pocket gopher should be recognised as full species, and the following list cannot be regarded as definitive.

Some sources also list a genus Hypogeomys, with one species, but this genus name is normally used for the Malagasy Giant Rat, which belongs to the family Nesomyidae.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Macdonald (Ed), Professor David W. (2006). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920608-2.
  2. ^ Patton, James (1984). Macdonald, D.. ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 628–631. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.

Bed Bugs

Lifecyles of the Bed Bug

 

When bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have adequate available blood sources they also have a shorter lifespan. Bed bugs who feed regularly have a lifespan of ten months, while those without adequate feeding can live a little more than a year. If a blood host is available, bedbugs can live to see three generations of offspring ready willing and hungry to prey on their human hosts.

Bed bugs (females) deposit three to eight eggs at a time. A total of 300-500 eggs can be produced by a single bug. Their eggs are 1/25″ long and curved. They are often deposited in clusters and attached to cracks, crevices or rough surfaces near adult harborages with a sticky epoxy-like substance.

Eggs typically hatch in a week to 12 days. The freshly hatched nymph is beige-colored before feeding, and then turns a redish color after getting a blood meal. There are 5 nymphal stages for bed bugs to reach maturity, which usually takes about 32-48 days. Adult bed bugs can survive for up to seven months without blood and have been known to live in empty buildings for up to one year.